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Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply ingrained inthesocial consciousness of the people. It is a set of principles, a framework of action andguidancesystem that gives order and meaning to life and human action.


Pakistan is an Ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basicprinciplebeing:”The only sovereigner is Allah”.Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan. Ideology ofPakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have anopportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. Theyshould have all the resources at the disposal to enhance Islamic culture andcivilization.Quid-e-Azam once said:”Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam”.From the above statement ,it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.Ideology of Pakistan was created when Muslims of Indo-Pak Sub Continent developed aspecific attitude of mind that they are different from Hindus. This was due to the injusticesdone to the Muslims by British and Hindus. Some of these are


The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity.Theyshould have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles,profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition .On one occation Quid-e-Azamsaid:”The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system oflife, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamic laws.”Thus, this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the SubContinent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.


The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economicand social dissimilarities between the two major communities. Hindus and Muslims of theSub Continent. These differences of outlook, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving riseto two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into twoindependent states.


The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held thatHindus and Muslims are two separate Nations. They in spite of living together for centuriescould not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in

1001 A.D in his famous book “Kitab


Hind” as: “The Hindus society maintained this

peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like twostreams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following

its separate course.”

There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations.Let us examine each of them separately.

1. Religious Differences

The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness ofAllah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, TheHoly Prophet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their societies followa caste system and are divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towardslife.

2. Hindu Nationalism

A number of Hindu nationalist movements, which emerged from time to time in the Indianhistory, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which alreadyexisted between the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored thegreat contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promotingeducation and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communaldiscord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.

3. Cultural Differences

Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus

burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burred them. Hindus considered the „Mother cow‟as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. they performed „sati‟

while Muslims abhorred this tradition .The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry nor theyinter-dine. 4. Social Differences The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in theirsocial life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, thewords of salutation, the gestures and everything about them was different and immediatelypointed to their distinctive origin.

4. Economics Differences

After 1857,the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such away so as to determent the Muslim condition .They were thrown out of Governmentservices and the their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus wereprovided with ample opportunities to progress economically.

5. Educational Differences

The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took theEnglish education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affectedtheir economic conditions.

6. Political Differences

The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role inthe development and evolution of Two Nation Theory.


1. Language

The Muslims and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages .The language of theformer was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand ,the Hindi languagewas spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had thedifference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this smalldifference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations.

2.Anti Muslim Campaign

The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith,belief,costoms and nationalimportance of Muslims because Muslims rebillion was creating much problem for both.

3.Inacceptance of British Rule

Muslims had been ruling the Sub Continent for ages.Therefore,they could not resist anypower over them,WhenBritsh came to rule the Sub Continent ,Muslims were the onlynation who opposed them.Thus,in order to gain power,British had to crush the Muslimscollectivity.


The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part ofHindu society. They also came to realize the above mentioned differences between themand the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they weredifferent nation from Hindus. Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e. two nation theory isthe basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this as a base, Pakistan would notcome into being on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open airof Pakistan.

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July 2024